On November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan authorized the legislation creating a federal holiday for the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., to be celebrated every year on the third Monday in January. Inequalities of race and gender impose large financial costs on society as a whole, because one consequence of discrimination is that it hinders people in developing and utilizing their talents. A half-century ago, white men dominated the high-skilled occupations in the U.S. Unless one holds the antediluvian belief that, say, 95% of all individuals who are well-suited to get doctors or lawyers are white men, this example was an obvious misallocation of public talents.
Thus, you can predict that as other organizations experienced more equal opportunities to participate, a boost would be provided by it to economic growth. Pete Klenow reports the results of some calculations about these connections in “The Allocation of Talent and U.S. Economic Growth,” an insurance plan Brief for the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
50 years roughly can be traced to higher equality of opportunity, which prompted many in women and minority organizations who experienced the underlying ability to view it as advantageous to produce a higher investment in individual capital. At least if you ask me, it is impressive to consider that 1/6 or 1/5 of total U.S.
- Market & Customers
- 7 years ago from Deep South, USA
- Support and command of CEO
- 363 The AES Corporation (NYSE:AES) -64.7% 7.55 21.39
- Real estate loans- residential mortgage loans
- FV = future value
- The Company Stands To Benefit Further From A Blossoming Chinese Ecommerce Market
In brief, reducing discriminatory obstacles isn’t just about justice and fairness to individuals; it’s also about a more powerful U.S. There have been four large national-level combined assessment studies of casing discrimination in the US within the last 40 years. Each of the studies were spread over several dozen towns. The first three involved about 3,000-4,000 tests; the 2012 study included more than 8,000 checks.
The appendix also lists another 21 studies done in recent years. Overall, the findings from the 2012 research find ongoing discrimination against blacks in rental and sales markets for housing. For Hispanics, there is apparently discrimination in rental markets, however, not in sales marketplaces. Here’s a chart summarizing a number of findings, which also gives a sense of the type of information collected in these studies. However, the extent of housing discrimination in 2012 has diminished from previous national-level studies. However, the inequality between cities with the best and lower poverty rates narrows significantly over this 18-season period.
Here we observe a narrowing of both the ratio of criminal offense rates as well as the absolute difference. Expressed as a proportion, the 1990 violent criminal offense rate among the populous cities in the top poverty decile was 15.8 times the pace for the cities in the cheapest poverty decile. 2001 will serve jail time at some true point in their lives. Many of the same low-income predominantly African American communities have disproportionately experienced both welcome decrease in inequality for crime victims and the less-welcome rise in inequality due to changes in criminal justice sanctioning.
While it is appealing to consider whether these two changes in inequality can be weighed and well balanced against each other, it appears to us that this temptation should be resisted on both useful and theoretical grounds. On theoretical grounds, the situation for reducing inequality of any type is rooted in promises about fairness and justice always. In some situations, a number of different claims about inequality can be combined into an individual scale-for example, when such claims can be measured or monetized in terms of income.
But the inequality of the suffering of criminal offense victims is fundamentally not the same as the inequality of disproportionate criminal justice sanctioning, and can’t be compared on a single scale. Our estimates of BTB’s results on callback rates imply that BTB substantially increases racial disparities in employer callbacks. We find that BTB expands the black-white space by about 4 percentage factors, multiplying the difference at affected businesses by one factor of about six. Does “Ban the Box” Help or Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? How Useful Is Inequality of Opportunity as a Policy Construct?
Staying around stocks, I looked at buybacks and dividends of companies, broken down by industry grouping. It will come as no real surprise that the industries where you see buybacks used minimal tend to be industries that have a brief history of large dividend obligations, with utilities, mining and metals and real property making the list.
Looking at the sectors that will be the biggest purchasers of their own stock, the list is dominated by companies that derive their value from intangible assets, with pharmaceuticals and technology accounting for seven of the ten top places. While that may surprise some, since these are viewed as high growth businesses, some of the biggest players in both technology and pharmaceuticals are now middle aged or older, using my corporate life cycle structure. It is not surprising that the biggest companies account for the majority of buybacks, nevertheless, you can also see that they come back far more in buybacks, as a percent of their market capitalizations, smaller companies do then.